Publications and reports

We have collected references to Daisy related papers in two notes.

Chronological Daisy bibliography divided by type, subject area, and project.

Alphabetical list of Daisy publications, plus list of papers describing independent models reimplemented in Daisy.

Both are incomplete, please send any additions and suggestions to us.  In general, we want to list papers that either describe Daisy, or an application of Daisy.

The original publication:

  • Hansen, Søren, Henry E. Jensen, Niels Erik Nielsen, and Henrik Svendsen (1991). Simulation of Nitrogen Dynamics and Biomass Production in Winter Wheat using the Danish Simulation model Daisy. In: Fertilizer Research 27, pp. 245-259.

The 2000 C++ rewrite, with emphasize on a more flexible model architecture:

  • Abrahamsen, Per and Søren Hansen (Mar. 2000).  Daisy: An Open Soil-Crop-Atmosphere Model. In: Environmental Modelling and Software 15.3, pp. 313-330.

The most recent overview, with emphasis on use cases:

  • Hansen, Søren., Per Abrahamsen, Carsten T. Petersen, and Merete Styczen (2012). Daisy: Model use, calibration, and validation. Trans. ASABE 55(4): 1315-1333.


Report A10 from the Danish National Agency of Environmental Protection titled DAISY - Soil Plant Atmosphere System Model contains the technical documentation for the original FORTRAN version of Daisy (no longer available). Since then, the code has been rewritten from scratch in a new language. New processes have been added, alternative models for old processes have been added, exiting models have gained additional parameters in order to cope with new situations, and some models have been calibrated to better data sets (in particular turnover of organic matter).

Nonetheless, this report is still the most complete single description of the model. In general, the processes and models from this report still constitute the "core" of Daisy.

Fetch the A10 report here.

Daisy Description 

A scientific description was started after The Danish Informatics Network in the Agricultural Sciences (Dina) sponsored the C++ rewrite of Daisy but never finished. Nonetheless it contain valuable information involving many of the changes made since the original FORTRAN version that was documented in A10.

Fetch the Daisy Description report here.

Daisy 2D Numerics

An overview of the 2D numerics in Daisy.

Fetch the Daisy 2D Numerics report here.


This report gives an overview of the concept, math, and code behind the support for preferential flow in tile drained soil in Daisy.

Fetch the R2D2 report here.

Uptake of Nitrogen by roots (Søren Hansen, 2017)

An updated version of nitrogen uptake module for Daisy. 

Fetch the Uptake of Nitrogen by Roots report here.

Alignment of Daisy with FOCUS recommendations (Per Abrahamsen, 2018)

Describe the difference between the traditional Daisy approach to canopy washoff, as well as depth, heat, and moisture affect on pesticide degradation, and the FOCUS recommendations.

Fetch the note here.

NYIELD: Decline in protein content of Danish cereals.

The protein content of spring barley and winter wheat has been declining. We use Daisy to examine why.

Fetch the Danish NYIELD report here.

Fetch English NYIELD summary here.

Flerdimensional modellering af vandstrømning og stoftransport i de øverste 1-2m af jorden i systemer med markdræn

This report (in Danish) describes how Daisy has been used to model pesticide leaching  in several fields, including two PLAP monitoring fields, and is able to explain observed leaching of water, tracers, and pesticides, including strongly sorbing pesticides like Glyphosate, to drain pipes. It introduces many new Daisy submodels, such as 2D flow of water, solutes, and heat, fast/slow domains for solute transport, a new biopore model which acts as second domain for water flow and a third domain for solute transport, a dynamic litter layer, and much more. The main report can be fetched from the Danish Environment Protection Agency. We also have two seperate appendices describing the Daisy setup results for Agrovand (fetch)  and PLAP (fetch) in more detail.